Tuesday, May 6, 2014

Citations



Books
Turton, Andrew. "Chapter 1." Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000. 21-30. Print.
Mansfield, Stephen. “Chapter 1” China, Yunnan Province.
Bradt Travel Guides, 2007
Bouchery, Pascal. Pg 99. The Relationship Between Society and Nature among the Hani People of Chine. 1996
Websites
"Hani Minority." RSS. China Fact Tours., 2008. Web. 06 May 2014.
"Hani Nationality." ChinaTour360. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 May 2014.
Bibliography: Omf.org, (2014). Hani of China | OMF. [online] Available at: http://www.omf.org/omf/us/peoples_and_places/people_groups/hani_of_china [Accessed 6 May. 2014].
Acidemic Journals
Central State, Local Governments, Ethnic Groups and the Minzu Identification in Yunnan (1950s–1980s)

Bibliography: Journals.cambridge.org, (2014). Central State, Local Governments, Ethnic Groups and the Minzu Identification in Yunnan (1950s–1980s). [online] Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=4136C5EAC77106B040DDFD781B8FF868.journals?fromPage=online&aid=5127520 [Accessed 6 May. 2014].

Journals.cambridge.org
Central State, Local Governments, Ethnic Groups and the Minzu Identification in Yunnan (1950s–1980s)Bibliography: Journals.cambridge.org, (2014). Central State, Local Governments, Ethnic Groups and the Minzu Identification in Yunnan (1950s–1980s). [online] Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=4136C5EAC77106B040DDFD781B8FF868.journals?fromPage=online&aid=5127520

  Bibliography: Tong, F. (1992). Ethnic Identification in China. Springer US, [online] pp.601-613. Available at: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-1231-2_25 [Accessed 6 May. 2014].

FASHION



Hani people make their clothing our of home spun dark blue cloth. Ages seven and down wear the same style of clothing regardless of gender. Men wear button down jackets and long pants. They wear turbans either black or white. Women have different fashions depending on their clan. Most wear short blouses that have buttons on the right side and long pants. Women in other clans wear buttoned up jackets with short skits and leggings. Also they wear decorated hats. Other women may wear colorful waist belts. Young women wear lots of jewelry such as rings, earrings, and necklaces. Married and unmarried women wear different hairstyles. Grannies of the HaNi tribe 哈尼族老婦
 http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=3918936

HANI RELIGION



Hani people believe that everything in the world has a soul. They worship the nature, ghosts, and ancestors. This natural phenomenon includes mountain, water, tree, sun, moon, wind, thunder, hail and earthquake among others. Sprites are most important in Hani religion. It is believed that each person has 12 spirits in the body that have different job functions. If a spirit leaves that body you will either get sick or have bad luck. Hani believe that once you die your soul still lives on. Once you die your soul leaves your body and will be guided by Beima, and your soul will return to your ancestral homeland. It is also believed that if you die unwed or over the age of 35 you will be an evil, homeless sprit who torments the living. But though some special religious ritual and the needs of such evil ghosts are met, the living people can stay away from the ghost haunting.
Ancestor worshipping is another strong Hani belief. Each Hani family has a very old lineage that is passed down from father to son. It is believed that the spirits of the ancestors exist in in the tombs, Momiluoke, specifically,the entry to the heaven or the place where the ancestral shrine is worshiped. Because of this, sacrifices are done regularly to win the favors and protection of the God and ancestors.
Although the Hani people religious belief still lagged behind their social development stage. Their original structures as nature worship and ancestor worship  is still practiced in the community. The original Hani religious belief argues that when a person is born, after three cryings they will have twelve spirits. The spirits have to be present permanently in order for good health and luck. But if a specific spirit, called the elementary sprit leaves, that person will die.

Hani marriage




Hani believe in monogamy and disapprove of marriages between relatives and sharing the same family name. Unmarried youth come out and dress up and share songs at the edge of the Hani village Liuran. If there are more than five girls looking for a boyfriend Ahbaduo, wine ball is held and if two fall in love they become what is called Zhaha, meaning stable friends. Once the parents approve of their love the family will send someone to offer gifts to the girl. And it is also a tradition for the girls sister to attack the boy who is coming to get his pride, with olives.  This is a tradition that wishes blessings on their soon to be marriage. The bitter taste of the olive means that the outset of one's life might be harsh and bitter, but it will be better and sweeter in the future. At the wedding the bride and elders sing sad songs. The sadder the song the more bond is shown between the bride and her family. Once the wedding is over, the bride will arrive at the grooms’ home and bow before the shrine of ancestors. Once that is finished she is supposed to eat a bowl of rice prepared by the groom. This is showing that she will never change her mind and love for her husband.

CLUTRUAL SURVIVAL



The Hani people mainly depend on agriculture. There climate is subtropical, with a mild 

climate, and lots of rainfall and fertile soil, providing perfect condition for the development 

of agriculture. Main crops include rice, corn, cotton, peanut, indigo, etc. They also plant tea 

and the tea produced occupies one third of the total tea yield of Yunnan Province. There diet 

to survive is two meals a day which includes rice, corn and  purple rice. Deep-fried locusts 

and cooked chicken heads are the dishes the Hani consider the best to offer important guests.



https://www.google.com/search?q=DEEP+FRIED+LOCUST&client=firefox-a&hs=tP0&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&channel=fflb&tbm=isch&imgil=ScYqKJmvY52Y3M%253A%253Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fencrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com%252Fimages%253Fq%253Dtbn%253AANd9GcR6lCDBPLQEtiziHQVqTm0JpgHNeY0VTWXh3cfrQNHW-x